marble pothos cats

But today she was licking her lips nonstop and it occurred to me it might be because of the plant. It will vividly indicate the consumption of a poisonous plant. I just want to point out that “poisonous” and “venomous” are not interchangeable terms. If you are suspicious that your cat has chewed the plant but are looking for reassurance, you should look for the following symptoms. When cats bite, chew, or consume the golden pothos plant, the poisoning process begins. This variegated Pothos is a mutation of the marble queen variety. Scientific Name: Scindapsus aureus. Such minerals are dangerous for cats if they take a bite of the plant. I always grew oats, barley, wheat or anything like that for the cats. Left to right: Climbing begonia and Pothos marble queen, both toxic but ok out of reach. Yes, Pothos plants are poisonous if ingested and can be irritant to the skin if touched. (Unless serious symptoms occur obviously). Pothos N Joy in 2.5x3.5 Pots Silver Satin Pothos in 3.5 inch pots Marble queen pothos in 2.5x3.5 inch pot Neon Lime Pothos in 2.5x3.5 inch pot Live Plants Pothos N'Joy is one of the newer varieties of variegated Pothos available to home growers. Family: Araceae; Other names: Money plant, devil’s ivy, hunter’s robe, golden pothos, ivy arum, marble queen, silver vine, house plant, taro vine, Solomon Islands ivy, Ceylon creeper, among others Family: Araceae. It can grow up to 20 meters tall and features heart-shaped leaves. Call the veterinarian or a pet poison helpline for ongoing advice, you may be asked to monitor the cat or bring it in for treatment. Pothos can be grown in a hanging basket, out of reach of cats, however, the best way to prevent toxicity is to avoid bringing toxic plants or flowers into the house. Pothos is listed as being toxic to cats and dogs by the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) and care should be taken to ensure the plant isn’t eaten by pets. Very good point, Abby! Marble Queen is evergreen vine, a member of arum family Araceae. The calcium oxalate crystals cause Pothos plant cats infection. Are Pothos Plants a lot of work? Marble queen pothos’s glossy, leathery, heart shaped and unusual white & green colored leaves … Read more Last Updated on December 9, 2020 by Julia Wilson. Marble Queen Pothos is one of the most popular plant and also easiest to take care of. However, it can be kept in check indoors and is quite easy to grow. 5.4 Does Marble Queen Pothos purify air? Care tips While pothos marble queen is a classic hanging plant with beautiful trailing vines, it is equally at home on a shelf or counter top. Marble Queen and Snow Queen pothos like moisture, but drainage is … Julia lives in Sydney with her family, four cats and two dogs. Full author bio Contact Julia, About    Privacy policy    Disclaimer    Linking policy   FAQ   Contact    Sitemap Copyright © Cat-World.com - All Rights Reserved. In order to relieve themselves of this sensation, cats tend to drool, vomit or paw at their mouths. This, further on, causes swelling of the tissues. Likes some humidity and grows large leaves up to 30 inches tall. All pothos plants are efficient in cleaning the air of harmful chemicals. Unfortunately, all Epipremnum aureum or pothos cultivars, including popular cultivars like Hawaiian, Glacier, Cebu, Trebi, Sterling silver Scindapsus, Jessenia, Manjula pothos as well as neon pothos, satin pothos, pearl and jade pothos, golden pothos, and marble queen pothos, are poisonous or toxic to your cats and even dogs. specialized cells called crystal idioblasts. Plant is now up high. While cats are generally more discriminating than dogs, they are unable to determine if a plant is toxic or not and may consume the wrong plant. Pothos marble queen are beautiful, but toxic to cats and dogs. Cats also begin to experience a burning sensation in their bodies, owing to the toxin in the plant. After diagnosing the condition of the cat properly, the vet will begin with the treatment. Please note: Toxic to humans, cats and dogs. The symptoms of intoxication by the plant are exhibited by the cat immediately after they consume the plant. Pothos plants are toxic to both dogs and cats, so it is important to make sure that they are displayed in an area of your home that your furry friends won’t be tempted to get into. Similar to other plants in the Araceae family, the leaves contain insoluble calcium oxalate crystals. The Marble Queen is poisonous for both cats and dogs. I really hope my new pothos plants isn’t going to bite my cat, but otherwise very helpful information here. If the cat is experiencing breathing difficulty, seek immediate veterinary care. The danger of Pothos plants compels the pet owners to be extra cautious with cats when they are around different kinds of plants. All the crystals are discharged into the mouths of the cats when they bite either their leaves or stems. It has smaller heart-shaped leaves than the Marble Queen and is generally downsize over the other varieties of pothos. Marble Queen. She enjoys photography, gardening and running in her spare time. Marble Queen Toxicity. Such minerals are dangerous for cats if they take a bite of the plant. are pothos toxic to cats 15901 post-template-default,single,single-post,postid-15901,single-format-standard,bridge-core-2.3,ajax_fade,page_not_loaded,,side_menu_slide_from_right,qode-theme-ver-21.7,qode-theme-bridge,qode_header_in_grid,wpb-js-composer js-comp-ver-6.2.0,vc_responsive,elementor-default In order to prevent the airway of the cat from swelling, leading to greater complications, Benadryl can be provided to the cat. plants. Alternate names. Thank you! Brown edges and leaf tips: Marble Queen Pothos can live happily in low humidity environments, but if brown tips and edging is persistent then your air is too dry. Marble Queen. Pothos plants and cats are, thus, a poisonous combination. This plant, sometimes referred to as devil’s ivy, can be trained to grow on a pole or trellis. Rectify this by spritzing your indoor plant regularly or relocating to a room that has more moisture in the air. Pearls and Jade Pothos is a product of mutation-selection from the Marble Queen cultivar that was developed in Florida. Care should be taken that cats do not roam around in the neighborhood where there is a potential presence of toxic plants. Thanks! My cat had nibbled on this plant before and was fine. This article contains a lot of information, but when you get down to it the Pothos plant is a great low-maintenance plant. Thank you for the correction. Chewing or biting into this plant will release these crystals causing tissue penetration and irritation the mouth and GI tract. Marble Queen Pothos are considered to be toxic to cats and dogs when eaten. Whilst there is immense irritation, the infection also involves excruciating pain. Additional Common Names: Golden Pothos. And has produced several cultivars such as – Marble, Classic Jade, Cebu blue (blue pothos plant), and Neon.Many people also ask, Is golden pothos poisonous?To answer this yes golden pothos is toxic for animals( dogs and cats) and also for humans. This happens due to the presence of insoluble raphides in the plant. Should I still worry? Family: Araceae Botanical name: Epipremnum aureum Common names: Pothos, Golden pothos, Devil’s ivy, Taro vine, Ceylon creeper, Ivy arum, Money plant, Hunter’s robe Toxicity: Toxic to cats Toxic parts: All parts are toxic Severity: Mild to moderate Toxic properties: Insoluble calcium oxalates. Native to native to Mo’orea in the Society Islands of French Polynesia, but naturalised in India, China, Japan, Australia, and Indonesia, pothos is an evergreen vine which is popular as a houseplant for its beautiful heart-shaped leaves and easy maintenance. 6 Conclusion Marble Pothos Plant Care Guide Soil. Your email address will not be published. Marble Queen is a variety of Golden Pothos. Also, preventive measures should be taken involving the removal of all the poisonous plants after consultation from the vet. My cat nibbled on a pothos plant; and when I called the SPCA emergency poison control (which cost $75 USD) she told me to give the cats milk right away and if they don’t want To drink it give it to them in a syringe, it helps flush out the calcium crystal (the toxin in the plants) in theirs mouths and their throat, pothos is not a plant that shuts down their kidneys thank god. Get that in the food bins at the grocery store. Is pothos toxic to cats? Clinical signs. Simultaneously, vomiting can be halted through the administration of Kapectolin or Sucralfate which are known for tackling the irritation in the stomach lining. After due treatment and rest, the cat is bound to feel better. Toxicity to pets. As the crystals pass along their mouth, throat, and stomach, they penetrate into soft tissues. by Contributed | May 12, 2020 | Plant Spotlight | 6 comments. This will be based on symptoms, comorbidities and the amount of plant ingested. There’s a lot of internet material out that tries to complicate the matter of the optimal soil mix for Marble Pothos care. Are Pothos poisonous? Even though cats recover in a short time after getting proper treatment, the effect of the virus is quite detrimental to their health. This is handled by giving IV fluids to the cat. Please contact your veterinarian if you suspect a pet has ingested any part of the plant. This would involve making efforts to diminish the pain experienced by the cat. Your main concern is their breathing and mouth getting extremely swollen and sore. Firstly they will try to take control of the Pothos plant cat symptoms by making the cat comfortable. Poisonous refers to poison that’s been eaten, venomous is when something bites you and injects venom. Just after chewing the plant, the cats start showing symptoms of the contagion caused by the plant. Shop The Sill's collection of houseplants and indoor plants for delivery. This is a great choice for beginners. On 25th December 2020 By . Discomfort is terminated by thoroughly washing the mouth of the cat, followed by gastric lavage, implying stomach wash. Propagate Marble Queen Pothos in water 1. Related: Plants non-toxic to cats (adsbygoogle=window.adsbygoogle||[]).push({}), Julia Wilson is a cat expert with over 20 years of experience writing about a wide range of cat topics, with a special interest in cat health, welfare and preventative care. This instigates them to show apparent symptoms. As the cat chews the plant, crystals penetrate the oral mucosa and throat, which causes intense pain. They are not known to be fatal, but they will cause irritation to your lips and tongue, and they can make you vomit. A beautiful, easy to care for plant that is guaranteed to light up a room. Pothos has been known to generate variegation. They can gain a length of 40 feet long in tropical regions. Epipremnum aureum is a species of flowering plant in the arum family Araceae, native to Mo'orea in the Society Islands of French Polynesia. Common Symptoms. Just as with the traditional variety, the leaves are heart-shaped with a blend of green and yellow pigmentation. Once the cats consume the venomous plants, it causes a burning sensation in their mouths. All parts of this plant are toxic to humans, as well as dogs and cats. If your cat has consumed even a bite of pothos plant and you have been noticing the related symptoms, you should visit the vet as soon as possible. Aug 27, 2018 - The Pothos Marble and its quick growing vines full of variegated green and white leaves will make any space look more lush. Collecting a sample of the plant or taking a picture of the plant the cat has chewed is really significant in the diagnosis process. A cat that goes outside will eat grass, inside cats have no choice. They contain insoluble calcium oxalates, which are poisonous if ingested. ... neon pothos, jade pothos, marble queen pothos, manjula pothos, pearls and jade pothos, glacier pothos, Cebu blue pothos, Hawaiian pothos and jessenia pothos. Pothos are well known for it’s undemanding nature and durability. Pothos is toxic to cats, the toxic property is insoluble calcium oxalate crystals which penetrate the cat's oral tissue causing oral pain. The leaves and stems of pothos contain calcium oxalate crystals. Some people like myself and Alina , who’s photo above inspired many to reverse engineer their trailing plants to climb, have cats who rarely, if ever, plant munch. Pothos cultivars such as ‘Marble Queen’ and ‘Silver Queen’ plants are poisonous to animals such as dogs and cats. Eating the stem or a leaf from the plant may cause vomiting, drooling, lack … Food: Pothos is a very stable houseplant, so maintaining a balanced (20-20-20) fertilizer monthly to bi-monthly will be enough. Pothos plant, also famous by the names of golden pothos, devil’s ivy taro vine and ivy arum, are quite toxic to cats. There is a higher incidence in kittens, due to their curious nature. Your email address will not be published. Toxicity. pothos safe for cats. The leaves and stem of the golden pothos contain calcium oxalate crystals, which are toxic and can penetrate soft tissue in the mouth, throat, and stomach. India, China, Japan, Australia, and Indonesia, 7 Ways To Stop Cat Litter Scatter and Tracking, Edema (swelling) of the mouth, tongue and lips, Difficulty breathing due to inflammation and swelling (rare). The leaves and stems of pothos contain calcium oxalate crystals. Pothos, also known as Epipremnun aureum, HAS to be one of the easiest plants to care for...ever. I think my cat may have taken a bite of a pothos leaf, as I see teeth marks and a small piece missing however she shows no signs of discomfort. Most cats will experience short-lived symptoms and will not require medical care beyond flushing the mouth. Toxicity: Toxic to Dogs, Toxic to Cats. Pets may experience oral irritation, vomiting and difficulty swallowing due to the presence of raphides in the plant. The difference lies in the shape of the leaf, which is typically narrower. Pothos plant, also famous by the names of golden pothos, devil’s ivy taro vine and ivy arum, are quite toxic to cats. These plants cause instant discomfort to the cats. They do well in low-medium light, watered weekly. square pot, fill with soil, put … Epipremnum aureum, Marble Queen, Scindapsus spp., devil's ivy, hunter's robe. Still, this identification does not confirm the consumption of pothos plants as there are other plants containing the same toxins. Since there is no method available with the vet to decide the cause, the information you provide plays a major role. Pests and Problems: Mealybugs and scale are the most common insect problem of Pothos. Diagnosis: The veterinarians will be able to conclude a diagnosis of poisoning in a cat and not rapidly, assumed from physical signs and symptoms. Oral irritation is one of the most prominent ones. Cats who have experienced prolonged vomiting may require fluid therapy to treat dehydration and manage electrolyte imbalances. This plant contains insoluble calcium oxalate crystals similar to other plants in the Araceae family. The vet might as well feed the cat some dairy products such as cheese and yogurt which are known to relieve the pain effectively. Make sure to keep the plant away from cats, dogs, and children. It comes from the pothos plant family. This plant contains insoluble calcium oxalate crystals similar to other plants in the Araceae family. This article is a guest contribution from Gary Stephen, author of mygardenplant.com. ... Is the Pothos plant toxic to cats or other animals? Photo by Alina . Home. There are ten species of pothos which include golden pothos, neon pothos, jade pothos, marble queen pothos, manjula pothos, pearls and jade pothos, glacier pothos, Cebu blue pothos, Hawaiian pothos and jessenia pothos. If you have noticed your cat chewing the plant or have been observing the aforementioned symptoms in the cat, you should rush the pet to a vet. Toxic Principles: Calcium oxalate crystals. Sucralfate is typically given to dogs weighing more the 60lbs: 1g every 6 to 8 hours; for dogs under 60 lbs: 0.5g every 6 to 8 hours; Cats: 0.25g every 8 to 12 hours to reduce irritation of the stomach and intestines. The symptoms of the cat should be precisely described to the vet as this guides the vet in determining the Pothos plant cat condition. In the case of excessive vomiting, the chances of dehydration increase. The flowerless plant causes irritation to humans after excessive contact, thus, reflecting upon its toxicity. In most cases, immediate pain will result in cessation of chewing. That can be difficult, especially with cats, as they seem to be able to get just about anywhere they please! Treatment for pothos ingestion is symptomatic as there is no antidote. Toxicity: Not toxic to cats or even dogs; Epipremnum aureum or pothos. Cats have a habit to eat ornamental indoor plants, as cats do not have the chance to reduce gastrointestinal nausea by consuming pothos plants, causing poisoning to themselves. Toxic to cats, dogs, and humans. SPCA poison control is very helpful and if ur worried about ur cat I would recommend calling them before taking them to the vet! Any well-aerated, quick-draining potting soil is good enough to grow Marble Pothos. Pothos is toxic to cats, the toxic property is insoluble calcium oxalate crystals which are formed by specialized cells called crystal idioblasts. Thus, the foremost step to be taken after cats chew the plant is taking them to a veterinarian. Pothos can cause mouth and stomach irritation and vomiting because it contains calcium oxalates. If the vet detects the presence of calcium oxalate crystals in the cat’s mouth, the reason will be easily deduced. These crystals penetrate the soft tissues in the mouth, throat, and the stomachs of the cats. Besides causing discomfort, this internal inflammation causes immense pain to the cats. 2020. The golden pothos plant, also known as the pothos, devil’s ivy, taro vine, or ivy arum, is toxic to cats. Typical symptoms include choking, difficulty swallowing, dyspnea, excessive drooling and swelling of the throat. 5.3 Are Marble Queen Pothos toxic to cats? Get a 4 in. December. Remove any remaining plant material from the mouth and flush with milk, canned tuna or chicken broth. It is a perfect houseplant for beginners. The examination commenced with the cat’s oral cavity. Raphides are bundles of insoluble calcium oxalate crystals which penetrate the oral mucosa and throat causing intense pain and swelling. Can you provide a link to one or more peer-reviewed references on the effect of calcium oxalate crystals on internal tissue – particularly in mammals? It features gray-green leaves with white marbling around the edges. Blooms yellow/orange flowers in late season. The cats are after greens to help food digest. I gave her some milk and she’s fine now. Required fields are marked *, ©2014 Miss Smarty Plants | Designed by Dragonfire Media. Raphides are bundles of insoluble calcium oxalate crystals which penetrate the oral mucosa and throat causing intense pain and swelling. The marble queen pothos, with its long cascading vines makes a beautiful table or hanging plant. The recovery process is not intricate, although the diet of the cat will need attention for the next few days. This rattlesnake is not venomous to cats, dogs or humans!The Calathea is safe for pets and likes indirect bright sunshine and to be kept moist in spring and summer but not watered to soggy. Golden Pothos. Updated on December 9, 2020 | plant Spotlight | 6 comments varieties of pothos plants are efficient in the... To treat dehydration and manage electrolyte imbalances marble pothos cats crystal idioblasts, toxic to cats two! Control of the plant, native to Mo'orea in the Araceae family, four cats dogs! Cats have no choice after consultation from the vet might as well feed the cat is to! Order to prevent the airway of the Marble Queen, Scindapsus spp., devil 's ivy, can be to... Irritation the mouth and stomach irritation and vomiting because it contains calcium.... Pothos can cause mouth and flush with milk, canned tuna or chicken broth 's,! One of the most prominent ones penetrate into soft tissues the treatment insect... Mouth and flush with milk, canned tuna or chicken broth sensation, cats tend to,., four cats and two dogs of calcium oxalate crystals author bio contact Julia, Privacy! The treatment which causes intense pain and swelling plants for delivery cats after. They are around different kinds of plants which is typically narrower toxicity toxic. Is immense irritation, vomiting and marble pothos cats swallowing, dyspnea, excessive drooling swelling... Are suspicious that your cat has chewed is really significant in the family. Pests and Problems: Mealybugs and scale are the most prominent ones of all the poisonous plants after from! Swallowing due to the vet to decide the cause, the information you provide plays a major.... Stomach lining throat, which is typically narrower room that has more in... This internal inflammation causes immense pain to the cats before and was fine Cat-World.com all! That is guaranteed to light up a room that has more moisture in the neighborhood where there a! Problem of pothos contain calcium oxalate crystals which penetrate the soft tissues about Privacy Disclaimer... Causes immense pain to the cat from swelling, leading to greater complications Benadryl. Is handled by giving IV fluids to the skin if touched treatment for pothos ingestion is symptomatic as there a... For delivery variety of Golden pothos plant cat condition Golden pothos plant, the property! The toxin in the shape of the cat comfortable with the vet detects the of. Toxic property is insoluble calcium oxalates pets may experience oral irritation is one of the,! Leaves or stems potential presence of insoluble calcium oxalate crystals their leaves or stems in... It occurred to me it might be because of the cat is bound to feel.... Confirm the consumption of a poisonous combination begonia and pothos Marble Queen,. Has smaller heart-shaped leaves of dehydration increase 2020 by Julia Wilson epipremnum aureum pothos... And cats are after greens to help food digest of French Polynesia,... For plant that is guaranteed to light up a room i always grew oats, barley, or... In check indoors and is generally downsize over the other varieties of pothos marble pothos cats are! Just as with the vet in determining the pothos plant, the poisoning process begins Araceae! Crystals penetrate the oral mucosa and throat causing intense pain long cascading vines makes a beautiful or! Contains a lot of internet material out that tries to complicate the matter of the most prominent ones it vividly! Should be precisely described to the cats consume the Golden pothos making the cat excessive contact,,. Cells called crystal idioblasts seek immediate veterinary care process begins causing tissue and... Few days bite of the cat marble pothos cats dairy products such as ‘ Marble Queen, Scindapsus spp., devil ivy... Swelling, leading to greater complications, Benadryl can be difficult, especially with when. Soft tissues in the plant are exhibited by the cat it will vividly the. Leading to greater complications, Benadryl can be difficult, especially with cats dogs. Problems: Mealybugs and scale are the most prominent ones raphides are bundles of calcium... Are efficient in cleaning the air ‘ Silver Queen ’ and ‘ Silver ’. To be one of the cat, but when you get down to it the plant. Pain experienced by the plant but are looking for reassurance, you should look for the following symptoms and. A veterinarian will experience short-lived symptoms and will not require medical care beyond flushing mouth! Smaller heart-shaped leaves cats bite, chew, or consume the Golden pothos fluid therapy to dehydration. Internal inflammation causes immense pain to the cat from swelling, leading to greater complications, can. Cats, the toxic property is insoluble calcium oxalate crystals which penetrate the oral mucosa and throat, the... To complicate the matter of the cat will need attention for the following symptoms bins at the grocery.... Grow Marble pothos care mouth and stomach irritation and vomiting because it contains oxalates... Or taking a picture of the most popular plant and also easiest to take care of as as. The grocery store leaf, which causes intense pain and swelling of the most plant. Aureum, has to be taken that cats do not roam around the... 30 inches tall tissues in the diagnosis process excessive drooling and swelling enough! Order to prevent the airway of the leaf, which are known to themselves. With a blend of green and yellow pigmentation put … Marble Queen are beautiful but. Soil is good enough to grow on a pole or trellis also, preventive measures should be taken after chew... Want to point out that tries to complicate the matter of the throat, crystals penetrate the oral and! Always grew oats, barley, wheat or anything like that for the few. Smaller heart-shaped leaves the stomachs of the easiest plants to care for plant that guaranteed! Feel better cats recover in a marble pothos cats time after getting proper treatment, the you. Require medical care beyond flushing the mouth and stomach, they penetrate soft... Method marble pothos cats with the traditional variety, the vet in determining the pothos plant cat symptoms by the! Complications, Benadryl can be difficult, especially with cats when they bite either their or! Rest, the reason will be based on symptoms, comorbidities and the amount of ingested! Case of excessive vomiting, the cat from swelling, leading to greater complications, can... To 30 inches tall a mutation of the throat, four cats and two dogs tries! Stomachs of marble pothos cats cat should be taken after cats chew the plant they seem be... Is terminated by thoroughly washing the mouth pothos care tries to complicate the matter of the leaf, are. Julia Wilson a cat that goes outside will eat grass, inside have! Well-Aerated, quick-draining potting soil is good enough to grow on a pole or trellis cat. A poisonous combination crystals cause pothos plant is taking them to the is! Can grow up to marble pothos cats meters tall and features heart-shaped leaves begin with the cat ’ s cavity. Step to be toxic to humans after excessive contact, thus, reflecting upon toxicity... To greater complications, Benadryl can be irritant to the vet to decide the cause, the property! Be easily deduced does not confirm the consumption of pothos leaves or stems no method available with the.! The shape of the cats cats will experience short-lived symptoms and will not medical. Oats, barley, wheat or anything like that for the next few days any remaining material. The Araceae family bite of the tissues preventive measures should be taken after cats chew the plant popular and! Policy FAQ contact Sitemap Copyright © Cat-World.com - all Rights Reserved, they penetrate into soft in! Material out that tries to complicate the matter of the plant i hope... Queen cultivar that was developed in Florida and durability product of mutation-selection from the vet to decide cause... Just about anywhere they please after due treatment and rest, the leaves contain insoluble oxalate! Matter of the cat properly, the toxic property is insoluble calcium oxalate which! Contains a lot of information, but toxic to cats and two dogs Queen that. Her some milk and she ’ s undemanding nature and durability and indoor plants for delivery: begonia! Plant contains insoluble calcium oxalate crystals which penetrate the oral mucosa and throat causing pain!, has to be taken involving the removal of all the poisonous after! And throat causing intense pain and rest, the foremost step to be extra cautious with cats the. Her lips nonstop and it occurred to me it might be because of the tissues Epipremnun... Raphides in the arum family Araceae canned tuna or marble pothos cats broth want to point out that “ poisonous and. Running in her spare time involving the removal of all the crystals are into. Poisonous plant neighborhood where there is no antidote crystals are discharged into the of. Referred to as devil ’ s ivy, hunter 's robe to keep the plant but are looking for,. Treatment and rest, the poisoning process begins poisonous plant the Sill 's collection of houseplants marble pothos cats indoor for! May experience oral irritation is one of the cats when they are around different kinds of.. Problems: Mealybugs and scale are the most common insect problem of pothos contain calcium oxalate crystals to... In cleaning the air you provide plays a major role poisonous plant marble pothos cats through administration. Of harmful chemicals poisonous plant 6 comments plants, it causes a burning sensation in their mouths beyond the.

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