applications of spectrophotometry in pharmaceutical field

In any disease condition, the chemistry of body changes which results in the changes in products in body fluids and excretion products can be detected for the diagnosis purpose by chromatographic instrument like gas chromatography equipped with mass spectroscopy [18]. A protocol for qualitative and quantitative analysis of pharmaceutical compounds by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry was described. From this figure, it can be concluded that the majority of applications relate to water, alloy, and food samples in which cationic species are determined. This ability is utilized for various purposes like phytochemical, clinical, pharmaceutical and forensic analyses. The sample for forensics in the case of drug abuse is mainly urine, hair and blood. This segment separates generated ions, either in space or in time, according to their mass-to-charge ratio (m/e). Brief introduction to this section that descibes Open Access especially from an IntechOpen perspective, Want to get in touch? Mass spectroscopy can also be used for the investigation of bile acids in biological fluids. A variety of analyte separation techniques like capillary electrophoresis, gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography are united with mass spectroscopy for simultaneous separation and determination of analytes called CE-MS, GC–MS and HPLC-MS, respectively. Pharmaceutical Applications (UV–vis) Of the four spectrophotometric techniques described in this chapter, currently the number of UV–vis procedures in use in the pharmaceutical industry probably accounts for more than all of the other three, that is, NIR, mid-IR, and fluorescence, combined. Spectrophotometry of proteins, Spectrophotometry in Forensic Science, Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry: … A library of compounds were analyzed using mass spectra data collected by DART-MS operated in switching mode at 20, 60 and 90 V settings. Mass spectroscopy has major use in structure elucidation of compounds. Primary Applications of Pharmaceutical Spectroscopy. For more accurate results, the instrument's response to the analyte in the unknown should be compared with the response to a standard; as in the case of calibration curve. Hence, the evaluation of bile acid can become useful for investigating the liver or intestinal functions along with the diagnosis of various diseases such as cholestasis, colon and liver cancer. This paper draws attention to the fact that derivative treatment continues to be a promising tool for analysis of spectra composed of unresolved bands as it provides selective, validated, simple and cost effective analytical methods. Mass spectroscopy is widely used for detection of impurities in samples. The large number of wavelengths emitted by these systems makes it possible to investigate their structures in detail, including the electron configurations of ground and various excited states. This study has been used in many applications related to the spectroscopy field. Phase II or conjugation reactions. © 2017 The Author(s). Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. Fragmentation pattern is characteristic for a particular organic compound. Likewise, the level of antitumor drug SCH 226374 was determined in mouse tumor tissue using MALDI-QqTOF mass spectrometer. Another similar study revealed a method for determination of amino acid sequence of fractions of peptides from apolipoprotein B by tandem mass spectrometry. Organic acidurias are an inherited disorder of metabolism in man, and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy is used to define an organic aciduria involving isovaleric acid. This is used for the confirmation of proposed fragmentation pattern of a molecule. Fragment ion peak: Peak of fragment ion in mass spectrum is called fragment ion peak. Then, the signal is transferred to a data collection system for data investigation. These are often used as characteristic of a compound for identification. *Address all correspondence to: drusb1985@yahoo.com, Spectroscopic Analyses - Developments and Applications. The spectrophotometer is also suitable to be used for quality control, general research, pharmaceutical, biochemical and other related applications. These methods are robust, easy to perform, sensitive, accurate and precise. Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers. A Swiss study has done a comparison between MALDI-TOF MS system and conventional methods for the identification of 1371 routine bacteria and yeast isolates. Under normal healthy condition, only small quantities of bile acids are found in peripheral circulation and urine, but in hepatobiliary and intestinal diseases it will get affected. Using the bench top spectrophotometer, scientists can easily measure numerically the effect the ingredient has on a cell by measuring the color of the dye in each section. Applications Spectroscopy is used as a tool for studying the structures of atoms and molecules. Drug metabolic reactions can be divided into two parts: 1. After specific needed corrections, compare molecular formula of unknown compound with the formula of saturated hydrocarbon. ASSAY OF SODIUM, POTASSIUM AND CALCIUM IN BLOOD SERUM AND WATER These changes can be accurately measured by mass spectrometer. A UV/Vis spectrophotometer may be used as a detector for HPLC. A triple-stage quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with electron impact (EI), FAB, APCI, ESI and thermospray (TSP) systems was utilized in the study [44]. A rapid, accurate, sensitive and reproducible method was developed using liquid chromatography–electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) to investigate conjugated and total bile acids in samples of human bile and mixture of bile acid standards. If m/e value of molecular ion peak is even number, then it may or may not contain even number of nitrogen atoms. Base peak: It is the most intense peak of the mass spectrum. Compared with other techniques, mass spectroscopy is only the technique for molecular weight determination, through which we can predict the molecular formula. The quadrupole linear ion trap with electrospray ionization and chemical ionization was also utilized in the analysis to characterize the primary structure of intact proteins [20]. It is a simple and reliable technique for measurement, quality control and dynamic measurement. This occurs due to disturbances in synthesis and pharmacokinetics in the body. This fast and effect instrumentation has become an essential tool in the pharmaceutical industry thanks to its adaptability and economic value. For group V elements (N, P, As, Sb, Bi): Addition of one hydrogen atom is required with each added element. By Uttam Singh Baghel, Atamjit Singh, Deeksha Singh and Manish Sinha, Submitted: December 18th 2016Reviewed: August 22nd 2017Published: December 6th 2017, Home > Books > Spectroscopic Analyses - Developments and Applications. Drugs analyzed were opiate agonists (morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide, morphine-6-glucuronide, 6-monoacetylmorphine, codeine, codeine-6-glucuronide, dihydrocodeine, dihydromorphine, buprenorphine, methadone, tramadol, and ibogaine), cocaine and its metabolites (benzoylecgonine and ecgonine methyl ester) and lysergic acid diethylamide in serum, blood, urine and other biological matrices by using single quadrupole instrument [40]. Therefore, base molecular formula will be: Hydrogen atoms in predicted base molecular formula = 6. The increase in sensitivity and resolution of the instrument has opened new dimensions in analysis of pharmaceuticals and complex metabolites of biological systems. How? spectroscopy:1. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) emerged as a valuable tool in direct analysis of pharmaceutical formulations. In association with an organic dye, pharmaceutical substances with no characteristic visible spectrum can be detected in this region. It does this by diffracting the light beam into a spectrum of wavelengths, detecting the intensities with a charge-coupled device, and displaying the results as a graph on the detector and then on the display device. The elucidation of impurity structure was made by utilization of LC–MS using quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization or an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) interface [35]. In this specific application, UV and fluorescence spectrophotometers invariably provide the detectors for the instrumental-based systems. Mass spectroscopy emerged as a powerful tool for various operations in pharmaceutical field mainly in drug development. Compare this product Remove from comparison tool visible spectrophotometer EMC-11S-V The characterization of polyisobutylenes was done by various mass spectrometry techniques like tandem mass spectroscopy with MALDI-TOF and ESI-QIT. This study suggested the use of tandem mass instruments like Q-TOF and metal cations in mass spectroscopy of heparin-like glycosaminoglycan oligosaccharides [13]. This can be performed by stepwise hydrolysis accompanied with chromatography. Spectroscopy testing provides a great method for safely and quickly analyzing a compound. Oxidation of a tertiary amino group to form an N-oxide is an important biotransformation pathway for many drugs and xenobiotics. Transact. Metastable ion peaks usually appear at nonintegral values of m/e ratio and are often seen as broad peaks. The characterization of commercial prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharide mixture was done with linear ion-trap mass spectrometer coupled with high-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) using electrospray ionization combination with 1H NMR and 13C NMR [15]. Steps for determination of hydrogen deficiency index: Make the correction in the predicted base formula with respect to the elements obtained from other spectral data, and the correction requires addition or removal of hydrogen atoms, which depends upon the type of element added. Newer techniques, such as laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and Laser Ablation ICP-MS (LAICP-MS) are also beginning to see wider applications in the analysis of elements in the pharmaceutical industry.This article will provide a perspective regarding the various applications of atomic spectroscopy in the analysis of metals and metalloids in drug products, active pharmaceutical … Bile acids have many vital physiological functions like lipid absorption and cholesterol homeostasis. applications of u.v. Application of Mass Spectroscopy in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, Spectroscopic Analyses - Developments and Applications, Eram Sharmin and Fahmina Zafar, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.70655. Abstract This chapter covers the use of spectrophotometry in the pharmaceutical industry. Similarly, benzene ring has hydrogen deficiency index four because it contains three double bonds and one ring in it. Difference in hydrogen atoms between two formulas (14–6) = 8 (which corresponds to four pairs of hydrogen atom). Bile has bile acids as the major constituents which are synthesized in liver and secreted in gall bladder or in intestine. However, cases of murders or death due to poisoning and drug overdose are also the prime targets for these drug candidates’ analysis [38]. The vacuum system is maintaining the low pressure which minimizes the chances of ion-molecule reaction, scattering and neutralization of the ions (Figure 2). MALDI-TOF MS provided identifications for 98.5% of the isolates, including 93.2% at the species level and 5.3% at the genus level. APPLICATIONS OF IR SPECTROSCOPY Infrared spectroscopy is widely used in industry as well as in research. For example, it … Mass spectroscopy now becomes an irreplaceable tool in all types of drug discoveries due to its high sensitivity, speed, versatility and selectivity [33]. Hydrogen atoms in actual molecular formula of compound = 4. Similarly, it can also be used for detecting the purity profile of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API), that are, MK-0969, an M3 antagonist; MK-0677, an oral-active growth hormone secretagogue and API-A, a cathepsin K inhibitor. For group VII elements (F, Cl, Br, I): The removal of one hydrogen atom is required with each added element. It is also a noninvasive tool that permits in vivo studies in humans. However, sequencing of underivatized peptides as in fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FABMS) is also employed. Additional peaks can be observed due to impurities in the sample and … In this review, different applications of Raman spectroscopy in the field of process analysis of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms are summarized. Mass spectroscopy also helps in quantitative elemental analysis, that is, the intensity of a mass spectra signal is directly proportional to the percentage of corresponding element. This library consisted of 17 commonly encountered drugs in parenteral pharmaceutical formulations, that is, surgical analgesic: fentanyl, hydromorphone and morphine; anesthetic: baclofen, bupivacaine, ketamine, midazolam, ropivacaine and succinylcholine; and a mixture of other drug classes: caffeine, clonidine, dexamethasone, ephedrine, heparin, methadone, oxytocin and phenylephrine [37]. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry is emerged as a potent instrument for the investigation of small molecules and proteins in biological systems by in situ analysis of tissue sections [28]. They employed linear ion trap quadrupole (LTQ)-orbitrap spectrometer and recorded Fourier transform mass spectrometer (FTMS) spectra at 100,000 resolutions. A few typical example of ‘flame-emission spectroscopy’ are given below.. 1. The Use of Spectrophotometry in the Pharmaceutical Industry. Determination of 11-nor-9-D-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH) in urine [41], alfentanil, fentanyl and its derivatives with other opioid drugs like morphine, buprenorphine, codeine, heroin, methadone, naloxone, naltrexone, tramadol, pentazocine, pethidine and others in hair [42] has been done by LC–MS and LC–MS/MS. 6-OH desloratadine and N-oxides can be clearly differentiated as the major fragment ion from N-oxides was due to the loss of an oxygen atom while the prominent fragment ion from 6-OH desloratadine was due to loss of H2O [45]. Mass spectrometry (MS) is an advanced technique for determining the molecular weight of a compound. It is based on the conversion of the sample into ionized state, with or without fragmentation which are then identified by their mass-to-charge ratios (m/e). If hydrogen deficiency index is two, there must be triple bond or two double bonds, two rings, or one double bond and one ring present in the structure. Regulatory demands also place “evidence of control” requirements on the composition and stability of the pharmaceutical products, and thereby the proof data associated with this process. Mass spectroscopy coupled with gas chromatography emerged as an indispensable tool in forensic field as well as LC–MS has also wide utility in forensic study. Implementation of mass spectroscopy in clinical laboratory resulted in significant advancements. It is divided into two parts: If m/e value of molecular ion peak is odd number, then it may contain odd number of nitrogen atoms. Both of these transformations involve changes in the molecular weight. The instrument has now a wide range of applications in pharmaceutical (drug discovery, pharmacokinetics, drug metabolism), clinical (neonatal screening, hemoglobin analysis, drug testing), environmental (water quality, food contamination, pollutant determination), geological (oil composition, hydrocarbon fraction determination in petroleum industry), metallurgy (determination of rare earth metals and metals at ppq (parts per quadrillion)), sports (dope test … This information is directly applicable in pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis. This paper delineates FTIR as a quantitative tool used now-a-days and other analytical applications in pharmaceutical and allied areas. C6H6 has six carbon atoms. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) is now in trend that is used to directly analyze and image pharmaceutical compounds in intact tissue [25]. They used MALDI-TOF for their study [29]. This is helpful in the study of metabolite, peptide sequencing and macromolecules. A new procedure was revealed which enabled selective sequencing and detection of serine-, threonine- and tyrosine-phosphopeptides at very low level of femto mole in protein digests with electrospray mass spectroscopy (ES-MS) using quadrupole mass spectrometer [22]. Peptides are converted into amino alcohols which are volatile in nature. In some cases, instruments have identified only one organism without indicating the presence of others. The availability of interphases made it possible to hyphenate this sophisticated technique with the different chromatographic techniques. A direct analysis in real-time ion source coupled with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (DART-MS) method for screening of pharmaceutical formulations was developed. Once the ions are separated, they are collected and detected in ion collector chamber. It shows promising results in its ability to visualize the drug and excipients distribution in pharmaceutical formulations such as tablets, creams and ointments. They used peptide drugs as an example and used ion trap mass spectrometer with electrospray ionization in their method [34]. Open Access is an initiative that aims to make scientific research freely available to all. These are usually one or two mass units higher or lower than the ion peak. For group VI elements (O, S, Se, Te): There is no need of addition of any hydrogen atom in the formula. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. The results coincide with the results obtained by the GC–MS technique. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. history and applications of near infrared spectroscopy The discovery of the infrared region in 1800 is credited to William F. Hershel's famous work, "Experiments on the Refrangibility of the Invisible Rays of the Sun", read April 24, 1800 at the Royal Society, Phil. By Tünde Jurca, Eleonora Marian, Laura Graţiela Vicaş, Mariana Eugenia Mureşan and Luminiţa Fritea. Detection of Impurities UV absorption spectroscopy is one of the best methods for determination of impurities in organic molecules. The spectrophotometer technique is to measure light intensity as a function of wavelength. Ions formed are separated in analyzer under the influence of electric and magnetic field and are recorded by the detector to give rise a mass spectrum (Figure 1). Licensee IntechOpen. There are some rules which are employed in interpretation of mass spectra in structure elucidation process. A new technique was developed for the identification of proteins on tissue using tryptic digestion followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry with tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Spectroscopy, study of the absorption and emission of light and other radiation by matter, as related to the dependence of these processes on the wavelength of the radiation. Analysis of methadone and its metabolites with other illicit drugs like cocaine, phencyclidine, heroin and 6-acetylmorphine in hair by GC–MS is another successful application of mass spectroscopy [43]. Of the species-level identifications, 95.1% matched conventional identifications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Similarly, a fast and sensitive liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for simultaneous determination of acetaminophen and its glucuronide and sulfate metabolites (APAP-GLU and APAP-SUL) in small plasma volumes. Our team is growing all the time, so we’re always on the lookout for smart people who want to help us reshape the world of scientific publishing. A triple-stage quadrupole mass spectrometer was used in the analysis at a very low detection limit of 0.05–0.5 ng/ml [39]. Absorption spectroscopy is an important analytical chemistry technique used in pharmaceutical analysis. This approach was applied to differentiate sulfoxide and sulfone metabolites from the isomeric mono- and di-hydroxylated metabolites, respectively. Mass spectroscopy provides rich elemental information, which is an important asset to interpret complex mixture components. In this technique, a portion of an isolated colony is loaded in the instrument and the comparison of spectrogram is done to a library by a proprietary algorithm to identify the organism. These amino alcohols derivatized and analyzed in mass spectrometer which aids sequence analysis. Uttam Singh Baghel, Atamjit Singh, Deeksha Singh and Manish Sinha (December 6th 2017). During biotransformation, attachment of polar functional groups occurs, which causes changes in the number of exchangeable hydrogens. For example, the detection and identification of ribavirin metabolites in rats was done with the aid of stable isotope labeled drug [49]. Positively charged molecule M+ is often unstable, and with increase in energy (10–70 eV) according to bond strength, they break into fragments called fragment or daughter ion which is denoted by M+1. Built by scientists, for scientists. Spectrophotometry is used for the quantitative determination of a great variety of substances in solution. There is dramatic amplification in interest and implementation of clinical mass spectrometry for testing of vitamin D. LC–MS/MS method enables to distinguish between vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 and also provides information on the vitamin D epimeric form, both of which are not currently possible with existing immunoassays. 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Of others by Sagar Aryal spectrometry is a powerful analytical tool applications of spectrophotometry in pharmaceutical field the world 's leading publisher of Access. 8 ( which corresponds to four pairs of hydrogen atoms between two formulas 6–4... Ion peak is even number, then it may or may not contain even number of atoms... In space or in intestine trend [ 18, 19 ] method was developed for diagnosis. With an electrospray ionization source was used in diagnosis and characterization of polyisobutylenes was done by various mass spectrometry MS! Particular organic compound bladder or in intestine specific application, UV and fluorescence spectrophotometers invariably provide the at.

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