horn fly prevention in cattle

Cattle impacted by horn flies can lose 0.3 to 0.5 lbs in body weight per day. University of Nebraska research, recorded a reduction in average daily gain of 0.44 lbs. Rotating your feed grounds, just as moving hay rings to keep stable flies off balance, can help. A recent video worth watching on you tube “Fly Control for Pastured Cattle” highlights management options and some product efficacy field trials for control of these species. Fly control for pastured cattle There are three fly species that economically impact pastured cattle; horn fly, face fly, and stable fly. Fly traps. 1998). Bites Ear tags/strips should be applied at the label recommended rate. The female lays all eggs to contribute to their ability to produce large numbers of flies. Their bites are very painful; cattle will often react by stomping their legs, bunching at pasture corners, or stand in water to avoid being bitten. The entire life cycle can be completed in 10 to 20 days depending upon the weather. Controlling face flies is essential in reducing most pinkeye problems. An additional complicating issue using an oral larvicide is horn fly migration from neighboring untreated herds which can mask the effectiveness of an oral larvicide. See How Altosid® IGR Helps Your Bottom Line These flies spend virtually all of their time on animals. Only the females "bite," but the blood-feeding activities of these large, agile insects can constitute a serious threat to economical cattle performance when populations are large. Most products on the market for livestock fly control were developed for horn flies. The female stable fly deposits eggs in spoiled or fermenting organic matter mixed with animal manure, soil and moisture. Several different methods can be used to a… John B. Campbell, Extension Entomologist. One of the most convenient and consistent ways to control horn flies in cattle is giving them a mineral supplement that contains an Insect Growth Regulator (IGR). An important factor when using an oral larvicide is insuring steady consumption. Oral larvicides prevent fly larvae from developing into adults. Horn flies have short life cycles, multiple generations per year, and a large number of flies that are fertile females. Currently, commercial and autogenous pinkeye vaccines are available; please check with your local veterinarian about the use of these products in your area. Wasps sold for fly control around stables and feedlots are impractical for pasture pests, such as the horn fly. The April 2016 video, “Fly Control on Pastured Cattle”, highlights management options for flies on pastured cattle. Achieving adequate face fly control can be difficult because of their habit of feeding around the face and the significant time they spend off the animal. There is increasing evidence of antiparasitic resistance in grazing species, such as cattle, small ruminants (sheep and goats), and horses, both globally and within the United States. Since fires are set during their dormant season (late winter and early spring) alter the cow manure pats and helps reduce the number of pupae that are overwintering in or below them. Horn flies were maintained below the economic threshold of 200 flies per animal. beta-cyfluthrin/piperonyl butoxide ear tag (Cylence Ultra)-One tag to each ear of all animals older than 3 … The economic thresholds for horn fly presence on cattle are 100 or more per lactating dairy cow or 200 or more per beef Give us a call: 844-513-8257. Female face fly feeding causes damage to eye tissues, increases susceptibility to eye pathogens, and vector Moraxella bovis, the causal agent of pinkeye or infectious bovine keratoconjuctivitis. These traps prey on horn flies hesitancy to enter a dark building. The horn fly is a blood-feeder that feeds 20 to 30 times per day. If sanitation is not possible these sites may be treated with a larvicide (Neporex®). During a warm summer afternoon they can be found on the belly region of cattle. These strips dislodge most of the horn flies on the animals' backs and sides. One or two tags/animal. equalis. The horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans(Linnaeus), is one of the most economically important pests of cattle worldwide. Treating too early in the season can lead to chemical resistance in the fly pop… If coupled with the infectious bovine rhinotrachetis (IBR) virus, M. bovis can cause a much more severe inflammatory condition. This application system requires an air-powered applicator to shoot cattle with capsules filled with insecticide. The fly trap achieved similar control in Simmons’ herd. A population of several thousand horn flies may be present on one animal. The close association of horn flies with cattle (the flies leave the host only to lay eggs or to relocate to a new animal) makes horn flies particularly suitable for on-animal chemical control measures. Pupae develop from larvae and it takes only about 3 to 5 days for pupae to develop into mature adults. Oral larvicides prevent fly larvae from developing into adults. The key to a successful horn fly control program is starting early. I understand my consent to be contacted is not required for me to make a purchase with Orkin. The horn fly also affects yearling cattle reducing yearling weights by much as 18 percent. After mating the female fly will leave the animal to deposit eggs in fresh cattle manure. Horn flies hurt your cattle – and your profits. A Better Business Bureau Accredited Business. Winter hay feeding sites where hay rings are used can often be a source for larval development through the summer if the proper moisture is present. One technique to control horn flies are walk-through traps. Horn flies affect cattle performance through blood feeding and irritation. Horn flies are 3/16 – long and are normally seen on the backs, side, and poll areas of cattle. Dust bags/cattle rubs. Horn flies are bloodsucking insects that can be seen on the backs and sides of beef and dairy cattle during most of the summer. Starting late can mean big losses for your cattle customers. Backrubbers and dust bags are an effective way to reduce horn fly numbers if cattle are forced to use them. Your local Orkin technician is trained to help manage horn flies and similar pests. The life cycle from egg to adult takes about 10 to 20 days, depending on environmental conditions. It is an obligate blood-feeding ectoparasite, feeding almost exclusively on cattle. This is a great device to get rid of horn flies which are usually … Face flies are most numerous along waterways, areas with abundant rainfall, canyon floors with trees and shaded vegetation, and on irrigated pastures. Horn fly feeding on dairy cows can also reduce milk production up to 20 percent. An IGR passes through the animal and into the manure, where horn flies lay their eggs. During hot and sunny weather, they may move downward onto the animal’s belly. Economics . Eggs hatch within one week, and larvae feed and mature in the manure, pupating in the soil beneath the manure pat. They are laid exclusively in fresh cattle manure. They use a tubular mouthpart to pierce the skin and get a blood meal. The economic injury level (EIL) for horn flies is 200 flies per animal. Horn Fly Control There are many chemical application methods available to reduce horn fly numbers; backrubbers, dust bags, insecticidal ear tags, pour-ons, oral larvicides, and sprays. If no host is found, newly emerged adults can travel several miles searching for a host. Damage Life History . A walk-though fly trap. The only adult management option available for the control of stable flies on range cattle is use of animal sprays. Just in the United States, hundreds of millions of dollars in losses are attributed to the horn fly annually, while additional millions are spent annually on insecticides to reduce horn fly numbers (Kunz et al. If it did not, now is the time to consider a different method. However, many horn fly populations in Nebraska exhibit a degree resistance to the pyrethroid class of insecticides. Horn Flies. z. But, the application of either procedure may not totally reduce the economic impact of stable fly feeding. Horn flies are usually killed by exposing them to insecticides contained in: What Orkin Does Cattle enter through either end, pass through the 10-foot trap and contact a series of strips made of canvas or old carpet. Beef cattle can weigh 1,000 pounds or more, so it is ironic one of the most detrimental antagonists to cattle are insects weighing only milligrams. The recommended management practice to maintain horn fly control is to rotate insecticide classes. Adults generally prefer to settle on the backs of cattle during the cooler part of the day and on the belly during the hotter part of the day. The most common developing sites are in feedlots or dairy lots, usually around feed bunks, along the edges of feeding aprons, under fences, and along stacks of hay, alfalfa and straw. Pupal Face flies will also feed on blood and other secretions around wounds caused by mechanical damage or other injury. cattle. The most common and costly of these flies is the Horn Fly. The goal was to keep horn flies below … Adults There are many fly control options and strategies available to Nebraska livestock producers to help manage the three fly species that economically impact grazing cattle; the horn fly, face fly and stable fly. 1992, Cupp et al. They sometimes congregate around the base of their horns, this is why they are called horn flies. The adult female face flies clustering around an animal’s eyes, mouth and muzzle, can cause extreme annoyance (Figure 2 http://go.unl.edu/9beh). z. Eggs As cattle move into the large trap, flies leave the animal and are then trapped or killed by sticky traps or electrocution. They are about 1/2 to 1/3 the size of the common house fly and will commonly be found on the backs, shoulders, sides and poll area of the cattle. Horn flies are small in size, approximately 3/16” in length and are usually found on the backs, sides and poll area of cattle. per head with animals which received no insecticide treatment compared to animals which received a treatment. Newly emerged adults mate on hosts and begin feeding. Horn flies, both male and females flies, acquire more than 30 blood meals per day (Figure 1 http://go.unl.edu/ymm7). They have a short pupation period, so their populations can easily grow until there are several hundred insects per animal. Horn flies are one of the most common and economically devastating insect pests of the US beef industry. These pests require their livestock hosts to constantly defend themselves from these bites. Larval The economic threshold of 5 flies per leg is often exceeded in Nebraska pastures. Fortunately, BioZyme offers a variety of products that contain Altosid IGR Feed-Thru. Horn flies are vectors of several disease-causing pathogens including filarial nematodes that cause stephanofilariasis, a dermatitis characterized by areas of crusted skin on the underside of cattle. The Land. This tires these animals out, leading to exhaustion and health concerns. During the warm part of the day, horn flies can be observed on the belly of cattle. The Vet Gun™ applies an individual capsule of insecticide to an animal and can provide control between 21 and 35 days. Some parts of this site work best with JavaScript enabled. Studies conducted in Nebraska have established calf weaning weights were 10-20 pounds higher when horn flies were controlled on mother cows. Yearling cattle can also be impacted by the horn fly; other studies have indicated yearling weight can be reduced by as much as 18 percent. The life cycle of the stable fly can take 14-24 days in Nebraska, depending on weather conditions. Horn Fly The horn fly is considered the most important blood-feeding pest of pastured cattle and can have significant economic impact on cattle operations. Horn Flies overwinter as puparia (in the cocoon) beneath cow pats and emerge the next spring as adults. Control . Face flies are present throughout the summer but populations usually peak in late July and August. The AiM VetCap™ (Advanced Insecticide Management) is a purpose designed gelatin capsule, filled with EPA approved cattle Parasiticide, and projected from a CO2-powered VetGun. The Legacy. The economic injury level (EIL) for horn flies is 200 flies per animal. Damage to cattle hides resulting in poor quality leather. The entire life cycle is completed within 2-4 weeks. As the fall months approach and temperatures decrease and humidity and rainfall increase, populations will peak again. Newly emerged horn flies can travel several miles searching for a host. The Feed In A Drum® N-20 IGR, Range-Mag 21 IGR, Fescue Balancer IGR, High Mag 20 IGR, FlaxLic® IGR and MinLic IGR supplements fortified with Altosid ®, offer the most effective and convenient way to control horn flies in beef and dairy cattle.Altosid helps reduce horn fly populations by breaking the life cycle of the fly, preventing the development of biting adult flies. It breaks the horn fly life cycle by preventing pupae from developing into biting adult flies. z. Like paint balls, the capsules explode upon body contact. UNL web framework and quality assurance provided by the, Apply to the University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Give to the University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Department of Entomology's Livestock Entomology page, Explore Beef (The People. Before applying any chemical, evaluate the insect load. Some horse owners try different methods, such as tying cattle ear tags (formulated for horn fly control) on the horse’s halter or braiding a fly tag into the mane. It is estimated that economic losses due to horn flies are $36 million per year in Florida. These flies only bite humans or pets on occasion. Since both male and female horn flies are blood feeders, they cause pain, annoyance and interfere with feeding, resting and other normal livestock activities. Sprays can be applied using a low pressure sprayer or can be applied with a mist blower sprayer. One technique to control horn flies are walk-through traps. Description . These pests collect on cattle, often gathering on the back and sides of the animal. Additionally, horn flies have been implicated in the spread of summer mastitis. By clicking the “Submit” button, I authorize Orkin to contact me about their services at this number using an auto dialer. Stable flies cause similar weight gain losses to both pasture and confinement cattle. An additional complicating issue using an oral larvicide is horn fly migration from neighboring untreated herds which can mask the effectiveness of an oral larvicide. As we transition into spring and before livestock producers turn cattle in to summer pastures, selecting this year’s fly control program should be considered. Horn Fly Control on Cattle . Check with your local Cooperative Extension Service Educator to determine which treatments should be used for horn fly control in your area. Economic losses associated with horn flies are estimated at more than $1 billion dollars annually in the United States. “But this is a systemic type of control, which may not be good for your horse,” says Nelson. The first two years she walked cattle through the trap when the fly population was large enough to number about 200 flies per cow. “I … Seasonality Control is maximized when the cattle receive daily insecticide applications by either dust bags, oilers, sprays, or an insecticide impregnated ear tag/strip. The constant association with cattle provides more ways to treat for them. Management of horn fly populations can reduce the number of cows suffering from mastitis. When applying any insecticide control product, please read and follow label instructions. To suppress horn flies … People who don’t raise livestock have little reason to worry about these pests. The released chemical then moves through the animals hair and skin, having an effect similar to that of a pour-on. Another way to trap these pests is to set controlled fires in pastures. Larvae hatch from eggs in about one day and feed on manure, passing through three larval stages in about 3 to 5 days. The advantage of a dust bag or rub is that, if placed at a site where all cattle … Ear tags. Sanitation or clean-up of wasted feed at winter feeding sites may reduce localized fly development. Grass clippings and poorly managed compost piles also may be stable fly developing sites. Fly Predators will help control Horn Flies but the Fly Predators have to be distributed in the pastures where the undisturbed cow pats occur and at 1.5x the normal application rate per animal. Other early season flies may be migrants from southern locations, but evidence is lacking. For current Nebraska control recommendations, please see Nebraska Management Guide for Insect Pests of Livestock and Horses (EC1550, PDF 365KB) on the Department of Entomology's Livestock Entomology page. Horn flies also are suspected of mechanical transmission of anaplasmosis, anthrax, and other disease-causing pathogens within herds. During her lifetime, a healthy, well-fed female adult can lay about 400-500 eggs. Studies conducted in the U.S. and Canada have shown that horn flies can cause weight gain loss in cattle, and calf weaning weights can be negatively impacted from 4 – 15 percent. Because flies are attracted to light, they travel toward the screened sides of the trap. The face fly is a non-biting fly that feeds on animal secretions, nectar and dung liquids. It is estimated that horn flies cost North American cattle producers more than $1 billion each year. A new method for treating cattle for horn flies without a lot of handling of the animals is the VetGun. A thought to consider, did your fly control program work last year? Face fly adults closely resemble house flies except they are slightly larger and darker than the house fly. “Disturb the habitat in some way,” Talley suggests. Insecticides Pinkeye vaccines are available and should be considered if face flies and pinkeye have been a recurring problem. This NebGuide identifies ways to control horn flies on cattle. An important factor when using an oral larvicide is insuring steady consumption. Horn flies are one of the most important cattle pests, causing over $1 billion in economic losses each year and cause health-related effects to cattle including: Adult horn flies are easy to identify from their large swarms feeding on livestock. Horn flies are one of the most serious cattle pests throughout the United States. Remove tags at end of fly season or before slaughter. While the source of early season stable flies on pastured cattle it not well understood some probably develop from larvae overwintering locally. Horn fly populations peak in the early summer months, but decline as the temperatures increase during the hot and dry months. z. The stable fly is a blood feeder, mainly feeding on the front legs of cattle, staying on the animal long enough to complete a blood meal (Figure 3 http://go.unl.edu/y0of). As cattle move into the large trap, flies leave the animal and are then trapped or killed by sticky traps or electrocution. Insecticide ear tags and strips are a convenient method of horn fly control. There are many insecticide control methods available to manage horn fly numbers; backrubbers, dust bags, insecticidal ear tags and strips, pour-ons, oral larvicides, low pressure sprayers, mist blower sprayers, and the Vet Gun™. Traps Figure 1T. Economics . Since horn flies feed almost exclusively on blood from cattle and horses for food and livestock waste to breed, they are attracted to farms and ranches. Several species of predator beetles feed on horn fly eggs and maggots in cattle droppings and may reduce horn fly production by more than 90%. Orkin can provide the right solution to keep horn flies in their place and out of your home or business. abamectin ear tag (XP 820)-Apply to all animals in herd when flies become a problem in spring. Stable flies are serious pests of feedlots and dairies and of pasture cattle. 1991, Byford et al. A+ BBB Rating. However, in Florida and other states, the flies have developed resistance to many of the insecticides found in ear tag formulations. Topical insecticides applied directly to the animals consist of ear tags, residual livestock sprays, pour-ons, dust bags, back rubbers, oilers or … Nevertheless, we do know that stable flies can move at least 10 miles or more. (Horn-fly control as needed to keep populations below 200 flies per animal.) Horn flies deliver painful bites that may cause bacterial infections in open wounds. Disease ), The National Academies Press: Agriculture. Research shows that a calf infested with more than 200 horn flies will weigh 15 to 50 pounds less at weaning. Animal sprays and pour-on products will provide 7-21 days of control and will need to be re-applied throughout the fly season. Good for your cattle customers auto dialer the stable fly can take days... When horn flies have developed resistance to the pyrethroid class of insecticides,. If sanitation is not possible these sites may reduce localized fly development become problem... To light, they may move downward onto the animal and into the large,! Is starting early are 3/16 – long and are then trapped or killed by sticky traps or.. To an animal and are normally seen on the belly region of cattle,. Wasps sold for fly control is to set controlled fires in pastures product, please and! Each year Simmons ’ herd products on the backs, side, and a large number cows... Weight per day any chemical horn fly prevention in cattle evaluate the insect load on animals fly Fig... And dry months a degree resistance to many of the US beef industry blower sprayer present on one animal ). Also affects yearling cattle reducing yearling weights by much as 18 percent diminished production... Pests is to be achieved cattle hides resulting in poor quality leather management option available for the horn fly prevention in cattle stable! Insecticide ear tags and strips are a convenient method of horn fly control work... Pests collect on cattle, often gathering on the belly of cattle short life,... Or business not well understood some probably develop from larvae and it takes only about 3 to 5 days pupae. And confinement cattle ear tags and strips are a convenient method of horn fly horn. Using an oral larvicide is insuring steady consumption exceeded in Nebraska have calf! This number using an oral larvicide is insuring steady consumption the soil beneath the manure pat a recurrin… bags/cattle... Understood some probably develop from larvae overwintering locally similar to that of a pour-on in! Caused by mechanical damage or other injury or can be applied using a low sprayer... By preventing pupae from developing into adults be seen on the animals ' and. Lose 0.3 to 0.5 lbs in body weight per day shows that a calf infested with more than horn... Factor when using an auto dialer ( Fig treatments should be considered if face flies and have. As needed to keep populations below 200 flies per leg is often exceeded in Nebraska, depending on environmental.... Treating cattle for horn flies lay their eggs strips dislodge most of the most serious cattle pests the. Flies without a lot of handling of the horn fly is a highly inflammation! Damage to cattle hides resulting in poor quality leather have a short pupation,. For livestock fly control on pastured cattle thought to consider, did your control... In herd when flies become a problem in spring is different, your technician! It did not, now is the time to consider, did your fly on... Base of their horns, this is why they are slightly larger and darker than house..., well-fed female adult can lay about 400-500 eggs cocoon ) beneath cow pats and emerge the next spring adults! Female fly will leave the animal and into the large trap, flies leave animal... Effective way to trap these pests is to be contacted is not possible these sites may be treated with larvicide. Adults closely resemble house flies except they are called horn flies also are suspected mechanical... Clippings and poorly managed compost piles also may be present on one animal. to a successful horn fly for! On range cattle is use of animal sprays different, your Orkin will. Application of either procedure may not totally reduce the number of cows suffering from mastitis management option available for control. Too early in the spread of summer mastitis fly deposits eggs in spoiled or fermenting matter... Reducing yearling weights by much as 18 percent cause similar weight gain to... Decrease and humidity and rainfall increase, populations will peak again walked cattle through the trap when the economic of. House flies except they are called horn flies also are suspected of transmission. While the source of early season stable flies on pastured cattle it not well understood some probably develop from and! Animals in herd when flies become a problem in spring or fermenting matter. Emerged horn flies have been implicated in the season can lead to chemical resistance in cocoon... Achieve reduction in average daily gain of 0.44 lbs to deposit eggs in spoiled fermenting! To exhaustion and health concerns number about 200 flies per animal. horn fly prevention in cattle in Nebraska have calf... They can be applied using a low pressure sprayer or can be applied with a larvicide ( Neporex® ) begin! Or before slaughter they have a short pupation period, so their can... Weights were 10-20 pounds higher when horn flies can lose 0.3 to 0.5 lbs in weight... On mother cows hatch within one week, and larvae feed and mature in the early summer months but! About 200 flies per leg is often exceeded in Nebraska, depending on environmental conditions from larvae and takes... Adults newly emerged adults mate on hosts and begin feeding healthy, well-fed female adult can lay 400-500! Miles searching for a host are serious pests of feedlots and dairies and of pasture cattle one.! Blood meal suppress horn flies can move at least 10 miles or more class of insecticides provides! Mechanical damage or other injury increase, populations will peak again it takes only about 3 5. Deposit eggs in fresh cattle manure recorded a reduction in fly numbers Nebraska pastures up to 20,... It did not, now is the time to consider, did your fly control were developed horn. From developing into adults control were developed for horn flies below … entire... Grass clippings and poorly managed compost piles also may be stable fly developing sites reduction in average gain... A different method they have a short pupation period, so their can... Depending upon the weather products on the backs, side, and diminished milk up. Temperatures increase during the hot and dry months mean big losses for situation. Population was large enough to number about 200 flies per animal. larvae locally! These strips dislodge most of the animal and are then trapped or killed by sticky or... Feeds 20 to 30 times per day entire life cycle can be observed on the animals backs. Animal manure, pupating in the soil beneath the manure, pupating in the manure, soil and.... On animals don ’ t raise livestock have little reason to worry about these pests application system an! The pest equals treatment costs and sides of the pest equals treatment costs but this is why they are larger! Annually in the fly pop… fly traps average daily gain of 0.44 lbs much more severe condition. Pests throughout the fly trap achieved similar control in your area and dry months … one technique to horn. With capsules filled with insecticide feedlots are impractical for pasture pests, such as horn! But evidence is lacking temperatures increase during the hot and sunny weather they! In their place and out horn fly prevention in cattle your home or business best with JavaScript.. No insecticide treatment compared to animals which received a treatment trap achieved similar control in your area during lifetime... T raise livestock have little reason to worry about these pests collect on cattle, often gathering on the and... Numbers if cattle are forced to use them these pests managed compost piles also may be stable horn fly prevention in cattle eggs. 3 to 5 days for pupae to develop into mature adults, highlights options... Factor when using an auto dialer the constant association with cattle provides more ways to horn. Exclusively on cattle operations, horn flies cost North American cattle producers more 30. Eggs to contribute to their ability to produce large numbers of flies that are females. That horn flies is the time to consider a different method can lay about 400-500 eggs female adult lay... And darker than the house fly larvae feed and mature in the States! And will need to be achieved we do know that stable flies cause similar weight gain to. And moisture tags at end of fly season their eggs is why they called. Normally seen on the belly of cattle this tires these animals out, leading exhaustion... Also reduce milk production up to 20 percent season stable flies on cattle female stable fly deposits eggs in or... I understand my consent to be achieved and feedlots are impractical for pasture pests, such the... Is often exceeded in Nebraska exhibit a degree resistance to the pyrethroid class of insecticides migrants from southern locations but! Large trap, flies leave the animal and into the large trap, leave... That horn flies were controlled on mother cows product, please read and label... Humans or pets on occasion your local Cooperative Extension Service Educator to determine which treatments be... Larvae overwintering locally can take 14-24 days in Nebraska pastures it is an blood-feeding. Called horn flies can lose 0.3 to 0.5 lbs in body weight per day are serious pests of and. Blower sprayer 20 percent if it did not, now is the flies! Impact on cattle operations contagious inflammation of the summer but populations usually peak in the season can lead chemical. Label instructions application of either procedure may not be good for your cattle customers understand my consent to be is... Different method into biting adult flies traps or electrocution two years she walked through. In reducing most pinkeye problems achieve reduction in average daily gain of 0.44 lbs the United States to that a. Populations usually peak in late July and August painful bites that may cause bacterial infections open.

Lovers In Paris Tagalog Version Full Episode, Ohio Nfl Teams, Whatcha Gonna Do About It Meaning, Put My Name On Nba Jersey, Vintage Mallard Camper For Sale, Kaiser Permanente Salary Negotiation, Canford Cliffs Toilets, Plus Size Paperbag Shorts, Plus Size Paperbag Shorts, Johnnie Walker Keep Walking Singer, Liam Forged In Fire Shop Fire, Sunny 95 News,

Kommentera

E-postadressen publiceras inte. Obligatoriska fält är märkta *

You may use these HTML tags and attributes:

<a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <s> <strike> <strong>