Evolutionary approaches state that animals are motivated to select a ‘mate’ with the best possible genes who will best be able to ensure the offspring’s future health and survival. B. understanding of psychology to everyday/real-life examples. We include both a blank and a sample CBA. Anisogamy means two sex cells (or gametes) that are different coming together to reproduce. Whatever the reason, there’s no denying that college is pretty expensive these days. or who believe that in practice, cost-benefit analysis is likely to produce a kind of regulatory paralysis.4 In this essay I offer support for cost-benefit analysis, not from the standpoint of conventional economics, but on grounds associated with cognitive psychology and behavioral economics. to issues, to: Whether or not theories are supported or refuted by valid research evidence. This increases feelings of intimacy. The aim is to gauge the efficiency of the intervention relative to the status quo. This may lead to the criticism that the theory lacks temporal validity. Rusbult et al.’s (2011) model of commitment in a romantic relationship builds upon the Social Exchange Theory discussed above and proposes that three factors contribute to the level of commitment in a relationship. Social Exchange Theory ignores the idea of social equity explained by the next relationship theory concerning equality in a relationship – would a partner really feel satisfied in a relationship where they received all of the rewards and their partner incurred all of the costs? As in Paper One and Two, you may be asked a 16-mark question, which could include an item (6 marks for AO1 Description, 4 marks for AO2 Application and 6 marks AO3 Evaluation) or simply to discuss the topic more generally (6 marks AO1 Description and 10 marks AO2 Evaluation). ", Cite this page: N., Pam M.S., "COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS," in, https://psychologydictionary.org/cost-benefit-analysis/, How to Keep Your Relationship Exciting and New. Disclosures to a public audience where the author’s identity is known are usually heavily edited. Huston, T. L., & Levinger, G. (1978). cost benefit analysis Sunday, November 13, 2011. milgram's experiment The agency theory says that a free act is a act caused by a agent. Other people are involved in the process; friends are encouraged to choose a side, and may urge for reconciliation with their partner, or may encourage the breakdown, through expression of opinion or hidden facts (“I heard they did this…”). A final study used to evaluate the cost-benefit allowance in psychology is the work of Gardener and Gardener with the born-wild chimp, Washoe. American Sociological Review,27(3), 295. doi:10.2307/2089791, Landy, D., & Aronson, E. (1969). Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23(4), 363–377. But can too much sharing scare your partner away? New York: John Wiley & Sons. It reduces all costs of an action to a single unit. Go. Research indicates important differences in the way in which people conduct virtual relationships compared to face-to-face relationships in terms of: This tends to vary according to whether the individual feels they are presenting information privately (e.g. Altman, I., Taylor, D. A., & Actman, I. Social Equity Theory does not apply to all cultures; couples from collectivist cultures (where the group needs are more important than those of the individual) were more satisfied when over benefitting than those from individualistic cultures (where the needs of the individual are more important than those of the individual) in a study conducted by Katherine Aumer-Ryan et al. There is also an opportunity cost in relationships, as time spent with a partner that does not develop into a lasting relationship could have been spent with another partner with better long-term prospects. It may be that two people’s personalities are very compatible, and attraction would occur if they spoke for any length of time, but a gate prevents this from happening. For example, whilst some people may want to spend as much time as possible with their partner in the early stages of the relationship and see this time together as a reward of the relationship, others may value their space and see extended periods spent together as more of a necessary investment to keep the other person happy. doi:10.1037/h0033731, Feingold, A. eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'simplypsychology_org-leader-2','ezslot_16',614,'0','0']));This theory may be interpreted as similar to the matching hypothesis but for personality rather than physical traits. Whilst this would be perceived as a less reliable and overly-subjective method in other areas, when looking at the amount an individual feels they are committed to a relationship, their own opinion and the value that they place on behaviors and attributes is more relevant than objective observations. Clark and Hatfield (1989) conducted a now infamous study where male and female psychology students were asked to approach fellow students of Florida State University (of the opposite sex) and ask them for one of three things; to go on a date, to go back to their apartment, or to go to bed with them. arranged marriages. Meet Jim! Cost Benefit Analysis Of: ADVANTAGES / BENEFITS: SHORT TERM For yourself For other people 1 1 2 3 2 3 4 5 4 6 5 6 LONG TERM For yourself For other people They found that when victims of crime were perceived to be more attractive, defendants in court cases were more likely to be given longer sentences by a simulated jury. doi:10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2063, Sprecher, S., & Hendrick, S. S. (2004). Why it can be expensive to try to avoid the possibility of loss. They value quantity over quality. As with other Addictions, this refers to the escalation of behavior to sustain and strengthen the relationship. 2nd February 2016. Cost-Benefit Analysis. Whatever characteristics led to success in mating will be passed onto the next generation, thus becoming more widespread in the gene pool. Duck’s phase model has useful real-life applications. Absorption refers to behavior designed to make the person feel closer to the celebrity. Cost-benefit analysis is a framework to assess the merits of an activity (project, policy) from the perspective of society (as opposed to a single individual). Clark and Mills (2011) argue that we should differentiate between the role of equity in romantic relationships and other types of relationships such as business or casual, friendly relationships. Kerchoff and Davis found that this level of filter was the most important for couples who had been together for more than 18 months. Costs and benefits are expressed in monetary terms and can be compared. Zhao (2008) found that Facebook users often present highly edited, fictional representations of their true identity, presenting a false version of their ‘ideal’ self who they consider more likely to be attractive to others. Equity Theory (Walster ‘78) is an extension of Social Exchange Theory but argues that rather than simply trying to maximise rewards/minimise loses, couples will experience satisfaction in their relationship if there is an equal ratio of rewards to losses between both the partners: i.e. Conditional mate choice strategies in humans: Evidence from ‘lonely hearts’ advertisements. Duck’s model may be a relevant description of the breakdown of relationships, but it does not explain what leads to the initial stages of the model which other models of relationships discussed earlier attempt to do. When relationship therapists can identify the phase of a breakdown that a couple are in, they can identify strategies which target the issues at that particular stage. Some cultures have traditions and expectations that one member of a romantic relationship should benefit more from the partnership. (2006) used 299 participants to investigate the links between attachment types and attitudes towards celebrities. If one partner’s reward:loss ratio is far lower than their partners they may experience anger or resentment (they are giving a lot and getting little in return). 5. At this point, the relationship is unlikely to be repaired as each partner has invested in the breakdown to their friends, and any retreat from this may be met with disapproval. When the relationship has completely ended, each partner will seek to create a favourable narrative of the events, justifying to themselves and others why the relationship breakdown was not their fault, thus retaining their social value and not lowering their chances of future relationships. How to avoid throwing good money after bad. Conclusion• 5. Cost-benefit analysis is the examination of a decision in terms of its consequences or costs and benefits. their Facebook account). United Kingdom: Illuminate Publishing. In the initial stages of a relationship, couples often seek to learn as much as they can about their new partner and feel that this sharing of information brings them closer together. Their internal narrative will focus more on processing the events of the relationship, perhaps reframing memories in the context of new discoveries about the partner, for example an initial youthfulness may now been seen as immaturity. A current danger in society relates to individuals assuming false identities online to deceive others into disclosing private information/images and then, possibly, blackmailing the individual who disclosed. Sprecher and Hendrick (2004) observed couples on dates and found a close correlation between the amount of satisfaction each person felt and the overall self-disclosure that occurred between the partners. Low shyness and high Facebook use was not correlated with friendship quality. Reference 3. Disclosures to ‘private’ audiences, particularly when the author’s identity is anonymous, are often marked by quicker and more revealing disclosures. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.104.2.226. In the exam, you will be asked a range of questions on the topic of relationships, which may include questions about research methods or using mathematical skills based on research into relationships. eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'simplypsychology_org-leader-4','ezslot_25',170,'0','0']));Operationalising rewards and costs is hugely subjective, making comparisons between people and relationships in controlled settings very difficult. doi:10.1098/rspb.2003.2445, Singh, D. (1993). The more physically desirable someone is, the more desirable they would expect their partner to be. doi:10.1037/h0021188, Waynforth, D., & Dunbar, R. I. M. (1995). It is heavily used in today's government. Can we generalize from studies on animals to humans as their anatomy & physiology is different from humans? In terms of romantic relationships, 70% lasted 2 years or more compared to only 50% of relationships formed face-to-face. peahens choosing peacocks with larger tails. (1987) suggested that individual differences are an important factor in equity theory. The actions that are thought to generate better advantages with regard to prices will also be the same actions that will persevere through natural selection. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(5), 1054–1068. Huseman et al. There will be 24 marks for relationship questions, so you can expect to spend about 30 minutes on this section, but this is not a strict rule. Specialist Channels › The Professional Teacher Economics Explore Economics Search. This was supported by their original 1962 longitudinal study of two groups of student couples (those who had been together for more or less than 18 months). Contextualising how the topic in question relates to Why you should throw the analysis away after doing it if the decision is personal and very important. Females lose more resources than men if they choose a sub-standard partner, so are pickier about who they select. If the benefit is higher than the cost of a treatment then there would be a … The acceptable CL needed to continue to pursue a relationship changes as a person matures and can be affected by a number of external and internal factors. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 12(01), 1. doi:10.1017/s0140525x00023992, Clark, R. (1989). procedures. Animal research also raises the issue of extrapolation. Gallagher, M., Nelson, R., J, Y., & Weiner, I. There is often competition between fans of celebrities to see who is the ‘biggest’ fan, which may lead to an exaggeration of the behaviors and attitudes when reporting the relationship. ecological validity’. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 5(2), 141–152. Jim has a shoe company and is considering buying new equipment for his factory. Canter & Heritage (1990) analysed 66 sexual assault cases using Smallest Space Analysis and identified clear common patterns of behavior. Attitude alignment in close relationships. Satisfaction level. Emotional convergence between people over time. Le and Agnew’s (2003) meta-analysis of studies relating to similar investment models found that satisfaction, comparison with alternatives and investment were all strong indicators of commitment to a relationship. Thibaut and Kelley assume that people try to maximise the rewards they obtain from a relationship and minimise the costs (the minimax principle). Annual Review of Psychology, 29(1), 115–156. Cost-benefit analysis is a process used by project leaders, business owners, and practitioners to understand the systematic calculating and later comparing costs and benefits of a project. Again, investment models tend to give correlational data rather than causal, it may be that a commitment established at an earlier stage leads inevitably to the partner viewing comparisons more favourably and investing more into the relationship. AQA psychology for A level year 2 - student book. A survey of 207 male and female students found that high shyness and use of Facebook scores correlated with higher perception of friend quality. doi:10.1300/j056v02n01_04, Davis, J. L., & Rusbult, C. E. (2001). behavior, 132(9), 755–779. Feingold (1988) conducted a meta-analysis of 17 studies and found a significant correlation between the perceived attractiveness of actual partners rated by independent participants. Gender differences in receptivity to sexual offers. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 270(1526), 1759–1763. eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'simplypsychology_org-large-billboard-2','ezslot_17',618,'0','0']));eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'simplypsychology_org-large-billboard-2','ezslot_18',618,'0','1']));eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'simplypsychology_org-large-billboard-2','ezslot_19',618,'0','2']));eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'simplypsychology_org-large-billboard-2','ezslot_20',618,'0','3'])); Evolutionary explanations for partner preferences, Factors affecting attraction in romantic relationships, How To Write AQA Psychology Essays for 16 Marker Questions, How To Answer AQA Psychology Short Context Questions, How to Answer ‘Design a Study’ Research Methods Questions, Research Methods Exam Questions and Answers, Research Methods Exam Questions and Answers (48 marks), Research Methods Exam Questions and Answers (24 marks). 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